How to lose weight quickly and not harm your health: a scientific approach
How fast can you lose weight without harm to health
Many people think that fast weight loss leads to a rapid set of pounds after giving up the diet, and slow, on the contrary, helps to maintain weight. A recent Australian study. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight management: a randomized controlled trial disproved this opinion.
One group of subjects lost weight in 12 weeks, and the other in 36. Then, those who lost more than 12.5% of their original body weight received a 144-week weight maintenance program.
As a result, 70% of those who quickly lost weight and 72% of those who lost weight gradually regained all the weight they lost. However, in the first group, 81% of the subjects were able to lose 12.5% of body weight, and in the second only 50%.
It turns out that fast weight loss is more effective than slow.
Dr. Donald D. Hensrud from Mayo Clinic advises Why do doctors recommend a slow rate of weight loss? What’s wrong with fast weight loss?lose no more than 0.5–1 kg per week. In his opinion, during too fast weight loss people often get rid of not fat, but water or even muscle tissue. After all, in a short time it is difficult to burn many calories.
- Stones in the gall bladder. From this ailment suffer from 12 to 25% of rapidly losing weight people.
- Nutrient deficiency.
- Menstrual problems.
- Hair loss.
So, in order not to harm your health and lose more fat, lose a maximum of one kilogram per week.
If you count, a kilogram per week is a fairly quick result (8 kg in two months), which allows you to create good habits and maintain weight for a long time. Now let’s talk about how to make a diet.
How to make a diet
How to calculate calorie content
Since one kilogram of fat contains Caloric Equivalents of Gained or Lost Weight 7 716 kcal, to lose weight per kilogram per week, you need to create a deficit of 1,100 kcal per day.
Two Year American Study Safety of two-year caloric restriction in non-obese healthy individuals showed that rejection of 25% of calories is not harmful to health. Therefore, if your current diet is less than 4,400 kcal, create a deficit not only through diet but also through physical activity.
For example, you can reduce the daily norm by 500-600 kcal and add an hour and a half to a quiet run or other physical exercises.
It is also worth considering the number of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (BJU). This is especially important for those who want to lose fat and maintain most of their muscle mass.
How to calculate BZHU
Study: A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentration The University of Washington Medical School has shown that a high-protein diet helps reduce weight even without calorie restriction.
The test subjects ’diet consisted of 30% protein food, 20% fat and 50% carbohydrate diet. People consumed fewer calories without any restrictions and after 12 weeks lost about five kilograms.
The benefits of a high-protein diet are also confirmed by a scientific article The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance1published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2015. It states that a daily intake of 1.2–1.6 g of protein per kilogram of weight reduces hunger and helps control weight. At the same time, muscle mass is preserved, and fat, on the contrary, disappears.
Add more protein to your diet: 30% of your daily calorie intake, or 1.6 g per kilogram of weight.
The ratio of fats and carbohydrates
Contrary to popular belief, carbohydrates are not to blame for the set of extra pounds. Therefore, low-carb diets are generally more effective.
Study participants A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity Frederick F. Samaha, who were on a low-carb diet, lost 5.8 kg in six months, while those on a low-fat diet lost only 1.9 kg.
In study Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents Stephen B. Sondike, people on a low-carb diet lost 9.9 kg in 12 weeks, and on a diet with a reduced amount of fat – 4.1 kg.
Similar results were obtained. Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet Jeff S. Volek in 2009: A 12-week low-carb diet reduced 10 kg, a low-fat diet 5.2 kg.
In addition, low-carb diets are beneficial. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women for heart health and reduce Low-carbohydrate-diet score and risk of type 2 diabetes in women risk of type 2 diabetes.
In the studies of Samahi and Sondeyk, diets with a consumption of 20–40 g of carbohydrates per day were used, in the study of Volek, carbohydrates accounted for 10–12% of the total calories.
If you want to quickly get rid of extra pounds and are ready to completely abandon flour and sweets, try a diet with a ratio of BZhU 30-60-10 or 30-50-20.
A diet with a BZHU ratio of 30–30–40 or 30–25–45 will add to the diet cereals and pasta, some bread, dried fruits. But the results will have to wait longer.
Remember: the main thing in the diet is to observe it. Therefore, try a different ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates and choose the most comfortable for you.
How to train
Why training is needed
Training helps you lose weight faster for several reasons:
1. Burn more calories during activity. This item does not require explanation: the more intense and longer you move, the more calories you burn.
2. Increase calorie consumption after training due to oxygen debt (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC). For a certain amount of time after training, the body consumes more oxygen to return to its normal levels, and spends more calories at rest.
In 2011, researchers found A 45-minute vigorous exercise bout increases metabolic rate for 14 hours.that after a 45-minute intense workout, metabolism remained accelerated for 14 hours. At rest, subjects burned an average of 190 kcal more than on days without training.
3. Increase the amount of brown fat that spends calories. In 2012, Dr. Bruce Spiegelman as part of a study Major fat-burning discovery found in mice that during exercise, working muscles produce irisin. This hormone travels through the body with blood and turns white fat cells into brown cells – a unique tissue that consumes energy instead of storing it.
Since people also have reserves of brown fat, Spiegelman decided that the irisin hormone performs similar functions in the human body.
Scientists have countedBrown Fat: A Fat That Helps You Lose Weight?that 50 g of brown fat can burn about 20% of the total daily calories.
In the body of an adult, about 20-30 g of brown fat, however, its amount can increase under the influence of cold and exercise.
How to do to lose weight
If you only want to lose weight, choose cardio exercises. StudyAerobic exercise alone results in clinically significant weight loss for men and women: Midwest Exercise Trial-2 Professor Joseph E. Donnelly of the University of Kansas has shown that cardio exercises can help you lose weight even without a diet.
Over 10 months, five days a week, overweight people spent 400-600 kcal on a treadmill. As a result, they lost about 5 kg without any diets.
Study: Effects of aerobic and / or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults Leslie H. Willis and his colleagues at Duke University showed that aerobic exercise is better for weight loss, and strength exercise is better for weight loss without fat.
Combined workouts help reduce fat and preserve muscle.
How hard to train
Study: The Effects of Fitness Level and Sex on EPOC Following High Intensity Interval and Moderate Intensity Aerobic ExerciseRachel Simmons showed that in the first 10 minutes after high-intensity interval training, oxygen debt is significantly higher than after moderate-intensity exercises. However, in the next 30 minutes, EPOC scores become approximately the same.
Study: Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation Edward Melanson of the University of Colorado confirmed that calorie consumption during the day after a workout is independent of its intensity. Came to the same conclusions Substrate oxidation differences between high- and low-intensity exercise are compensated over 24 hours in obese men at the University of Massachusetts.
High-intensity workouts help burn more calories faster. But if you have time and you do not want to die in the gym, choose cardio and medium-intensity strength exercises.
Here are some types of activity that will help burn about 600 kcal to a person weighing 70 kg:
- An hour of running at a speed of 9 km / h and a pulse of 140-150 beats per minute.
- Two hours of walking at a speed of 5-6 km / h.
- Two hours of cycling at a speed of 10-12 km / h or an hour at a speed of 20 km / h.
- Two hours of calm swimming (1–1.5 km / h) or an hour of fast swimming (1.8 km / h).
For interval training, you can use burpees, double jump rope, throws of a stuffed ball and other exercises for weight loss .
How many times a week to train
Scientists from the University of Alabama in Birmingham found out Combined Aerobic / Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women that you need to train in moderation. Those study participants who studied four times a week began to spend 200 kcal more per day in everyday life. And those who had six workouts a week, 150 kcal less.
Four workouts per week are suitable for those who want to spend calories not only in the gym, but also the rest of the time. With such a frequency, you can do both power and cardio exercises.
High-intensity interval training should not be arranged too often: twice a week will be enough. On other days, you can do cardio exercises of medium intensity.
Running is also not worth overdoing. Experienced running trainer and physiologist Susan Paul advises How Often Should I Run?start with three cross-country workouts per week and, if desired, supplement the program with two more cross-workouts. For example, dancing, yoga, Zumba, and others.
Checklist for those who want to lose weight fast
- Calculate how many calories you consume per day.
- Subtract 500 kcal from your daily allowance. Depending on your weight and the desired pace of losing weight, you can subtract more or fewer kilocalories, but in any case, you should not cut the diet by more than 1100 kcal: this can be dangerous to health.
- Make a menu so that about 30% of all calories is protein, and 10–45% is carbohydrates.
- Do 3-5 workouts per week. Calculate your physical activity so that you burn about 600 kcal in one workout. If you don’t have enough time, try high-intensity interval training.
- Do cardio exercises if you only want to lose weight, and add strength to them if you want to maintain muscle mass.
- Avoid stress. Many studies prove the relationship between stress and visceral fat. Read more about this in this article.
- Get enough sleep. As studies have shown, lack of sleep increases the appetite and is bad for the health.