How to lose weight quickly and not harm your health: a scientific approach

How quickly you can lose weight without harming your health


Many people think that rapid weight loss leads to a quick set of pounds after giving up the diet, and slowly, on the contrary, helps to maintain weight. A recent Australian study. The effect of weight loss rate on long-term weight management: a randomized controlled trial refutes this opinion.

One group of subjects lost weight in 12 weeks and the other in 36. Then those who lost more than 12.5% of their original body weight received a 144-week weight maintenance program.

As a result, 70% of those who lost weight quickly and 72% of those who lost weight gradually regained all the weight they lost. In the first group, however, 81% of the subjects could lose 12.5% of body weight and in the second only 50%.

It turns out that rapid weight loss is more effective than slow.

Dr. Donald D. Hensrud of Mayo Clinic advises why doctors recommend a slow rate of weight loss? What about rapid weight loss?do not lose more than 0.5-1 kg per week. In his opinion, during weight loss too quickly, people often do not get rid of fat, but water or even muscle tissue. After all, in a short period of time, it is difficult to burn a lot of calories.

In addition, rapid weight loss can have other negative effects. They are listed in his article. Rapid Weight Loss Dr. Michael Dansinger:

Stones in the gallbladder. From this disease suffer 12 to 25% of people who lose weight quickly.
A lack of nutrients.
Bad.
Fatigue.
Dizziness.
Clog
Menstrual cramps.
Alopecia.
So, in order not to damage your health and lose more fat, lose a maximum of one kilogram per week.

If you count one kilogram a week is a fairly quick result (8 kg in two months), so you can create good habits and keep the weight for a long time. Now let’s talk about how to diet.

How to make a diet


How to calculate the calorie content?
Since one kilogram of fat contains calorie equivalents of weight gained or lost 7,716 kcal to lose weight per kilogram per week, you need to create a deficit of 1,100 kcal per day.

Two-year American study the safety of two-year calorie restriction in healthy non-obese people has shown that the rejection of 25% of calories is not harmful to health. Therefore, if your current diet is less than 4,400 kcal, create a deficit not only through diet, but also through physical activity.

For example, you can reduce the daily norm by 500-600 kcal and add an hour and a half to a quiet run or other physical exercises.

It should also take into account the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (BJU). This is especially important for those who want to lose fat and get most of their muscle mass.

How to calculate BZHU
The protein count
Study: a high-protein diet induces discounts.supports appetite, calories, ad libitum and body weight despite compensatory changes in the concentration during the day of leptin and ghrelin in the plasma of the faculty of medicine of The University of Washington has shown that a diet rich in protein, reduce weight, even without calorie intake

The diet of the test subjects consisted of 30% protein food, 20% fat and 50% carbohydrates. People consume fewer calories without restrictions and after 12 weeks lost about five kilograms.

The benefits of a high protein diet are also confirmed by a scientific article The role of protein in weight loss and Maintenance 1published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2015. It indicates that a daily intake of 1.2 to 1.6 g of protein per kilogram of weight reduces hunger and helps control weight. At the same time, muscle mass is maintained and fat disappears on the contrary.

Add more Protein to your diet: 30% of your daily calorie intake, or 1.6 g per kilogram of weight.

The ratio of fats and carbohydrates
Contrary to popular belief, carbohydrates are not to blame for any extra pounds. Therefore, low-carb diets are usually more effective.

Participants of the study a low-carb diet versus a low-fat diet in severe obesity Frederick F., you have to look at this!, followed a low-carbohydrate diet, lost 5.8 kg in six months, while those who followed them, a low-fat diet did not lose that 1.9 kg.

In the study, the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and the risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents who are overweight Stephen B. Sondike, people who have lost a low-carbohydrate diet, 9.9 kg in 12 weeks and a diet with a reduced amount of fat-4.1 kg.

Similar results were achieved. Carbohydrate reduction has a More beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome Than a low-fat Jeff S. Volek diet in 2009: a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet reduces 10 kg, a low-fat diet 5.2 kg.

In addition, low-carb diets are beneficial. Low-carb diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women who are responsible for heart health and reduce low-carb diet score and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women the risk of type 2 diabetes.

In the studies of Samahi and Sondeyk, diets with a consumption of 20-40 g of carbohydrates per day were used, in Volek’s study, carbohydrates accounted for 10-12% of the total calories.

If you want to quickly get rid of extra pounds and are ready to give up flour and sweets completely, try a diet with a ratio of BZhU 30-60-10 or 30-50-20.

A diet with A bzhu ratio of 30-30-40 or 30-25-45 will add to the diet of cereals and pasta, bread, dried fruits. But the results have to wait longer.

Remember: the main thing in the diet is to watch it. Therefore, try a different ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates and choose the most convenient for you.

How to train
Why Training is necessary
Training helps you lose weight faster for several reasons:

  1. Burn more calories during activity. This article does not require an explanation: the more intense and longer you move, the more calories you burn.
  2. Increase calorie consumption after training due to oxygen debt (excessive oxygen consumption after training, EPOC). For a while after training, the body consumes more oxygen to return to its normal levels and spends more calories at rest.

In 2011, researchers found a powerful 45-minute exercise fight increases the metabolic rate for 14 hours.that after an intense workout of 45 minutes, the metabolism remained accelerated for 14 hours. At rest, the subjects burned an average of 190 kcal more than on days without Training.

  1. Increase the amount of brown fat that consumes calories. In 2012, Dr. Bruce Spiegelman as part of a major study fat burning discovery in mice found that during exercise, the muscles that produce irisin work. This hormone travels through the body with blood, turning white fat cells into brown cells – a unique tissue that consumes energy rather than storing it.

Since people also have brown fat reserves, Spiegelman has decided that the hormone irisin performs similar functions in the human body.

Scientists have counted brown fat: fat that helps you lose weight?50 g of brown fat can burn about 20% of the total daily calories.

In the body of an ADULT, about 20-30 g of brown fat, however, can increase its amount under the influence of cold and exercise.

How to lose weight
If you just want to lose weight, choose cardio exercises. Study aerobic exercise alone leads to clinically significant weight loss for men and women: Midwest Exercise Trial – 2 Professor Joseph E. Donnelly of the University of Kansas has shown that cardio exercises can help you lose weight even without dieting.

How to lose weight quickly and not harm your health

Over 10 months, five days a week, overweight people spent 400-600 kcal on a treadmill. As a result, they lost about 5 kg without diet.

Study: Effects of aerobic exercise and / or resistance on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese Adults Leslie H. Willis and colleagues from Duke University have shown that aerobic exercise is better for weight loss, and weight training is better for weight loss without fat.

Combined workouts help reduce fat and maintain muscle.

How hard to train


Study: Effects of fitness and sex on EPOC after a high-intensity and moderate-intensity interval Aerobic trainingachel Simmons showed that the oxygen debt in the first 10 minutes after a high-intensity interval training is significantly higher than after moderate-intensity exercises. However, in the next 30 minutes, the EPOC values will become approximately the same.

Study: Effects of exercise intensity on 24 – hour energy consumption and oxidation of Nutrients Edward Melanson of the University of Colorado has confirmed that calorie consumption during the day after exercise is independent of its intensity. Came to the same conclusions substrate oxidation differences between high and low intensity exercise over 24 hours can be compensated in overweight men at the University of Massachusetts.

High-intensity workouts help burn more calories faster. But if you have time and do not want to die in the gym, choose cardio and strength exercises of medium intensity.

Here are some types of activity that help to burn about 600 kcal for a person weighing 70 kg:

One hour running at a speed of 9 km / h and a pulse of 140-150 beats per minute.
Two hours on foot at a speed of 5-6 km / h.
Two hours of cycling at a speed of 10 to 12 km / h or one hour at a speed of 20 km / h.
Two hours of calm swimming (1-1.5 km / h) or one hour of fast swimming (1.8 km / h).
For interval training, you can use burpees, a double skipping rope, throwing a plush ball and other exercises to lose weight .

How many times a week to exercise


Scientists at the University of Alabama in Birmingham have discovered a combined aerobic / strength training and energy expenditure in older women that they need to exercise in moderation. The study participants, who studied four times a week, began to spend 200 kcal more per day in daily life. And those who had six training sessions a week, 150 kcal less.

Four workouts a week are suitable for those who want to spend calories not only in the gym, but also the rest of the time. With such frequency, you can do strength and cardio exercises.

High-intensity interval training should not be organized too often: twice a week will be enough. On other days, you can do cardio exercises of moderate intensity.

Running is also not worth exaggerating. Susan Paul, an experienced running coach and physiologist, advises, how often should I run?start with three cross-country workouts per week and, if desired, complete the program with two more cross-country workouts. For example, dance, yoga, zumba and others.

Checklist for those who want to lose weight quickly


Calculate how many calories you consume per day.
Subtract 500 kcal from your daily allowance. Depending on your weight and the desired pace of weight loss, you can subtract more or less kilocalories, but in any case, you do not need to reduce the diet by more than 1100 kcal: this can be dangerous for health.
Make a menu so that about 30% of all calories are protein and 10 to 45% carbohydrates.
Do 3-5 workouts a week. Calculate your physical activity to burn about 600 kcal in one workout. If you do not have enough time, try interval training with high intensity.
Do cardio exercises if you just want to lose weight and add strength if you want to maintain muscle mass.
Avoid stress. Numerous studies have shown the connection between stress and visceral fat. Learn more about it in this article.
Get enough sleep. As studies have shown, lack of sleep increases appetite and is bad for health.

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